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Migration, sometimes generically referred to as imaging, is a step in seismic data processing which attempts to move recorded data so that events lie in their correct spatial location rather than their recorded location. The mathematics of migration is well-defined by the wave equation, and has been extensively researched over the past three decades.
Broadly speaking, there are two approaches: pre-stack and post-stack. There are lots of methods:
- Implicit finite difference
- Explicit finite difference
- fk migration
- Phase shift migration
- Velocity anisotropy in migration
- Depth migration
- Wave equation migration
- One-way (controlled beam)
- Two-way (reverse time)
- Seismic migration — Wikipedia entry
- M is for Migration — blog post
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