# Impedance

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In seismology, impedance of a rock layer is defined as,

${\displaystyle Z=\rho _{B}V_{P}}$

the product of bulk density and P-wave velocity. The normal incidence (vertical) reflection coefficient between an upper layer 'i' and a lower layer 'i+1' is given by,

${\displaystyle R_{i}={\frac {Z_{i}-Z_{i+1}}{Z_{i}+Z_{i+1}}}}$

## Shear impedance

S-wave impedance is the product of bulk density and S-wave velocity

## Elastic impedance

Elastic impedance (EI) is an offset (or angle) dependent property for non-normal angles of incidence. It was first described by Connolly, 1999.

## P to S converted wave elastic impedance (PSEI)

Also called Shear wave impedance