Bulk modulus

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Elastic bulk modulus.png

One of the elastic moduli, sometimes called incompressibility, volumetric modulus, or stiffness.


In terms of VP and VS

Other expressions

K can also be expressed in terms of Young's modulus, E, and Poisson's ratio, ν. This could be thought of as 'the engineer's perspective':

The 'rock physics perspective' casts K in terms of the 1st Lamé parameter λ and shear modulus μ:

Bulk modulus of effective media

Upper and lower bounds on the bulk modulus of mixtures of n materials can be obtained using Voigt–Reuss and Hashin–Shtrikman bounds.

Conversion formulas — edit
The elastic properties of homogeneous isotropic linear elastic materials are uniquely determined by any two moduli. Given any two, the others can thus be calculated. Key reference: Mavko, G, T Mukerji and J Dvorkin (2003), The Rock Physics Handbook, Cambridge University Press.

P-wave velocity
S-wave velocity
Velocity ratio
1st Lamé parameter
Shear modulus
Young's modulus
Bulk modulus
Poisson's ratio
P-wave modulus