NMO equation

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The NMONormal move-out equation defines the normal moveout function. The total reflection (or offset) time tr is given by the NMONormal move-out (or zero-offset) time tn, the offset x and the velocity of the medium V:

t^2_\mathrm{r} = t^2_\mathrm{n} + \frac{x^2}{V^2}

where, for an apparent depth d to a zero-dipping reflector in the subsurface,[1]

t_\mathrm{n} = \frac{2d}{V}\


  1. See Russell, B (1998). A simple seismic imaging exercise. The Leading Edge 17 (7), 885–889. DOI: 10.1190/1.1438059

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