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In seismology, impedance of a rock layer is defined as the product of bulk density ρB and P-wave velocity VP:

Z_\mathrm{P} = \rho_\mathrm{B} V_\mathrm{P}\

The normal incidence (vertical) reflection coefficient between an upper layer i and a lower layer i + 1 is given by

R_{i} = \frac{Z_{i+1}-Z_{1}}{Z_{i+1}+Z_{i}}

The angle-dependent reflectivity is given by the Zoeppritz equation.

Shear impedance

S-wave impedance is the product of bulk density and S-wave velocity

Z_\mathrm{S} = \rho_\mathrm{B} V_\mathrm{S}\

Elastic impedance

Elastic impedance (EI) is an offset (or angle) dependent property for non-normal angles of incidence. It was first described by Connolly, 1999.

P to S converted wave elastic impedance (PSEI)

Also called Shear wave impedance.

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